Summary. A Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change, or the Burke & Litwin Model, suggests linkages that hypothesize how performance is. Download scientific diagram | The Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change from publication: Change Management Strategy in. To provide a model of organizational performance and change, at least two lines of theorizing need to be W. Warner Burke George H. Litwin The authors go beyond description and suggest causal linkages that hypothesize how.

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No 3 p Change in these factors is only likely to lead to lasting change if, in turn, the transformational factors are also affected. The key external factors that have an impact on the organization must be identified and their direct and indirect impact on the organization should be clearly established. This website is a joint collaboration between:. Systems Policies and Procedures — These are the mechanisms put in place to help and support employees.

Structure — The breakdown of the organisation i. It is the external environment that makes an organization to change its mission, culture, leadership and its operating strategies. This would also involve identifying motivational triggers.

Before we talk about these 12 dimensions, here is a little insight into the basic philosophy on which this change model is based.

Using the Burke-Litwin Change Model to Manage Organizational Change

This may be legal systems or reward systems, for example. Lasting change to any of these factors is likely to sweep change throughout the organisation. And mkdel the linkage between these supportive pillars is the key to effective and smoother change. Outline of the Approach The model revolves around 12 organizational dimensions: The model focuses on providing a guide for both organizational diagnosis and planned, managed organizational change, one that clearly shows cause-and-effect relationships.

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Using the Burke-Litwin Change Model to Manage Organizational Change

The Burke-Litwin change model strives to bring in change in the causl of a team or an organization by establishing links between performance and the internal and external factors which affect performance. The model also distinguishes between moodel and transactional organizational dynamics in organizations. The other most critical aspect is how well the management and the staff collaborate to achieve the new strategies and goals as proposed in the change.

The model not only discusses how different dimensions link with each other but also discusses how external environment affects the different dimensions in an organization. External Environment — This factor represents any forces or conditions outside of the organisation that will affect its processes.

For practical use it would be better to look at these key factors and questions and seek answers to them. Mission and Strategy — This factor describes the purpose of the organisation and also the processes for how it will be achieved.

Management Practices — Behaviours and activities of managers, usually aligned to carrying out the overall strategy. Therefore, using this model can reveal what areas of the business are affected and how they are interrelated.

The most dominant factor that triggers organizational change is the external environment. Each group then contains various elements of the organisation.

Burke-Litwin: The Performance and Change Model

Identifying the motivation level of the employees will make it easier to determine how willingly burke-litwjn would put in their efforts to achieve organizational goals. An example would be a change in legal working requirements external environment. This change model is based on assessing the organizational as well as environmental factors which can be tweaked so as to ensure a successful change.


It is a collective study of how the employees think, feel and what do they expect. Through motivation and individual needs and values, we would then see a change to individual and organisational performance. There are four groups of elements within an organisation; the external environment, transformational factors, transactional factors and performance.

The two main uses of the model are to either diagnose a problem within the organisation or create an action plan often for a change initiative.

Firstly, the group should be identified where either the change is coming from or being planned for. Once this has occurred, all affected elements can also be identified.

Transactional factors pink blocks refer to day-to-day operations within the organisation.

Individual and Overall Performance: This dimension takes into account the level of performance, on individual and organizational levels, in key areas like productivity, quality, efficiency, budget and customer satisfaction etc. The causal model links what could be understood hurke-litwin practice to what is known from research and theory.

The Performance and Change Model Analyse model. This involves understanding what a specific job position demands and the kind cauwal kind of skills and knowledge that an employee must have in order to fulfill the task responsibilities of that job position.

A study of the leadership structure of the organizationshould be carried out, which clearly identifies the chief role models in the organization.